Study Notes (5a)
Abu Abdur Rahman
Note: The revision notes below should not be solely relied upon. They are to be utilised along with their corresponding explanations delivered during the lessons.
This is to believe that Eemaan consists of belief, sayings and actions. It is broken down into the following detail; sayings and actions of the heart, sayings and actions of the tongue, and actions of the outwardly manifested limbs.
The Linguistically Meaning Of Eemaan Is Tasdeeq
Tasdeeq or ‘trust’ or ‘belief’ as the brothers of Yusuf (alayhis-salaam) said:
“They said: “O our father! We went racing with one another, and left Yûsuf by our belongings and a wolf devoured him; but you will never believe us even when we speak the truth.” [Yusuf (12):17]
Meaning ‘trustful’. It opposite is denial
The Technical Meaning Of Eemaan
It is belief in the messenger in all that he informed us of from Allaah and to follow this with outwardly actions (ie the pillars of Islam) and with sayings of the tongue.
EVIDENCE FOR PRINCIPLE NINE
When we look into the definition of Eemaan according to the Shari ‘ah we find it is: A saying of the heart and tongue, actions of the heart and tongue and limbs.
Sayings of the heart
This is trusting in, and accepting, what is in the heart is manifest in the speech, as Allaah said:
“And he (Muhammad (Sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam)) who has brought the truth (this Qur’aan and Islamic Monotheism) and (those who) believed therein (i.e. the true believers of Islâmic Monotheism), those are Al- Muttaqûn (the pious and righteous persons).” [Az-Zumar (39):33]
Actions of the heart
This is the intention, sincerity, love, fear, reliance as Allaah says
“The believers are only those who, when Allaah is mentioned, feel a fear in their hearts and when His Verses (this Qur’aan) are recited unto them, they (i.e. the Verses) increase their Faith; and they put their trust in their Lord (Alone).” [Al-Anfaal (8):2]
Sayings of the tongue
This is in pronouncing the shahadah and attesting to all it necessitates. As Allaah said:
“Verily, those who say: ‘Our Lord is (only) Allaah,’ and thereafter Istaqaamoo (i.e. stood firm and straight on the Islamic Faith of Monotheism by abstaining from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which Allaah has forbidden and by performing all kinds of good deeds which He has ordained), on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.”
Actions of the tongue and body limbs
These are actions of the tongue which cannot be performed except by using the tongue alone like recitation of the Qur’aan, adhkaar (remembrances) and actions of the body limbs are those which cannot be performed except by using the body limbs alone like standing in prayer, rukoo, sajood as Allaah states:
“Verily, those who recite the Book of Allaah (this Qur’aan), and perform As-Salaat, and spend (in charity) out of what We have provided for them, secretly and openly, hope for a (sure) tradegain that will never perish.”
So the heart has sayings and an action, the tongue has sayings and actions, and the body limbs have actions all of which compromise Eemaan.
The differences amongst the people in what constitutes Eemaan.
Ibn Abi Izza (rahimahullaah) who explained Aqeedah at Tahaaweeyah said the people have differed in what they believed constitutes Eemaan to be. So Maalik, Shafi’ee, Ahmed, Awzaa’ee, Ishaaq bin Rahweeyah and all the rest of the people of hadith and people of Madinah (may Allaah have mercy on them all) went to the opinion that Eemaan constituted of belief in the heart, attesting that with the tongue and action of the body limbs. [Aqeedah Tahaaweeyah p373 – 374]
Some scholars went to the opinion that ‘attesting to it with the tongue’ is an extra pillar of Eemaan. From them was Abu Mansoor al Maatureedi and he narrates from Abu Haneefah.
2. Jaham ibn Safwan and the Qadariyah went to the opinion that Eemaan was ‘awareness (knowledge) in the heart only’ and this opinion is far more corrupt than that of the Karaamiyah. This opinion necessitates that Fir’aun and his people were believers because they knew the truthfulness of Musa and Haroon yet they did not believe in them. Allaah said about them:
“He [Moosaa] said: “Verily, you know that these signs have been sent down by none but the Lord of the heavens and the earth as clear (evidences i.e. proofs of Allâh’s Oneness and His Omnipotence, etc.). And I think you are, indeed, O Fir’aun (Pharaoh) doomed to destruction (away from all good)!” [Al-Israa’ (17):102]
And His saying:
“And they belied them (those Ayât) wrongfully and arrogantly, though their ownselves were convinced thereof [i.e. those (Ayât) are from Allaah, and Mûsa is the Messenger of Allaah in truth, but they disliked to obey Moosaa, and hated to believe in his Message of Monotheism]. So see what was the end of the Mufsidûn (disbelievers, disobedient to Allaah, evildoers, liars).” [An-Naml (27):14]
Also, the people of the book knew the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) as they knew their own children yet they still did not believe.
Further, Abu Taalib would be a believer accordingly because he knew the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) very well.
Even worse Iblees himself would be a believer with complete Eemaan according to Jahm bin Safwaan, for he was not ignorant about his lord either. Allaah confirms this from his saying:
“He [Iblees (Satan)] said: “O my Lord! Give me then respite till the Day they (the dead) will be resurrected.” [Al-Hijr (15):36]
And His saying:
“He [Iblees (Satan)] said: “O my Lord! Because you misled me, I shall indeed adorn the path of error for them (mankind) on the earth, and I shall mislead them all.” [Al-Hijr (15):39]
So Eemaan with Jaham bin Safwan is knowledge of the lord of the worlds, and Kufr would be simply ignorance of him. Upon this belief there is not a complete disbeliever in this earth, because no one is ignorant to the Creator of the worlds.
4. The Murjiyah2 and the Karaamiyah3 say: ‘Eemaan is attesting with the tongue without belief in the heart.’ Upon this the hypocrites are believers, and Allaah said about them: “And never (O Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam)) pray (funeral prayer) for any of them (hypocrites) who dies, nor stand at his grave. Certainly they disbelieved in Allaah and His Messenger, and died while they were Fâsiqûn (rebellious, – disobedient to Allaah and His Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam)).” [At-Taubah (9):84]
5. Others of the Murjiyah said Eemaan is ‘belief in the heart and attesting with the tongue’ but they negate actions of the bodily limbs here, they remove the hadith of Jibraeel which explains the pillars of Islam.4
6. The Khawaarij and many others who followed them said Eemaan was ‘obedience to Allaah in the obligations and voluntary deeds’.5
To be continued, in shaa’ Allaah…