Aqeedah of The Four Imams



Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahimahullah):

When Imaam Abu Haneefah (Rahimahullah) was asked of his opinion of the one who says I do not know whether Allaah (Subhaanahu wa ta’aala) is above the heavens or on the earth, Imaam Abu Haneefah (Rahimahullah) said:
He has disbelieved, because Allah (Subhaanahu wa ta’aala) says: “The Most Merciful rose above the Throne”, and His Throne is above His (Subhaanahu wa ta’aala) seven heavens.
He was then asked, what if he said that Allah (Subhaanahu wa ta’aala) is above His (Subhaanahu wa ta’aala) Throne but he does not know whether the Throne is in the heavens or on the earth he said, he has disbelieved, because he has denied that He (subhaanahu wata’aala) is above the heavens.
[Quoted in Al-Uluww of Adh-Dhahabi, also in Sharh Aqeedah At-Tahawiyyah of Ibn Abi Al-Izz Al-Hanafi]
Imaam Abu Haneefah (Rahimahullah) was also said,
“He is something (shay’un) but not like other things, and the meaning of Shay’un is affirmed without affirming a body, limbs or organs. And He has no limit and no partner or opposite, and no similitude. And He has a Hand, a Face and a Self. As for what is mentioned in the Quran: the Face, the Hand, the Self (Nafs) then these are His Attributes without asking how. And it is not said that His Hand is His Power (Qudra) or Favour (Ni’ma) because this contains nullification of the Attribute, and this is the saying of the People of Qadr (Jabariyyah) and the Mu’tazila. Rather His Hand is His Attribute without asking how, and His Anger (Gadb) and Pleasure (Ridaa) are two Attributes without asking How.”
[Quoted in Fiqh al-Akbar’ Page #.36-37]

Imaam Malik Bin Anas (Rahimahullah):

Imaam Malik (Rahimahullah) said when replying to the one who asked, ‘How did Allah make Istawaa? (Ascension above the Throne),
“Al-Istawaa is Known, and its how is unknown, to have faith in it is obligatory, and to question it is an innovation.” Then he said to the questioner, “I do not think except that you are an innovator” and he ordered him
to be expelled.
[Quoted in Al-Asmaa was Sifaat’ Page #.516]
It is related by Al-Harawi from Imaam Ash-Shafiee, that he said, Imaam Malik was asked about kalaam (Theological rhetoric) and Tawheed, so Malik said,
“It is foolishness to think about the Prophet (Sal-Allahu ‘alayhe wa sallam), that he taught this Ummah about istinjaa (cleaning after relieving oneself), but he did not teach them Tawheed. And Tawheed is what the Prophet (Sal-Allahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) said:
“I was commanded to fight the people until they say: There is no Deity worthy of worship besides Allah.”
[Quoted in Sahih Al-Bukhari and Sahih Imaam Muslim]

Imaam Muhammad Idrees Ash-Shaf’iee (Rahimahullah)

Imaam Ash- Shafiee (Rahimahullah) said:
“The belief that I am upon, and I saw Our Companions, the Ashab-ul- Hadith (People of hadith)- like Imaam Malik and Sufyan and others – to be upon is:
Affirming the testimony that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah (Subhaanahu wa ta’aala) and that Muhammad (Sal-Allahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) is the Messenger of Allah. And that Allah (Subhaanahu wa ta’aala) is above His Throne, above His heaven. He comes close to His creation howsoever He Wills, and He (Subhaanahu wa ta’aala) Descends to the lowest heaven howsoever He Wills.”
[Quoted in ‘Awn al-Ma’bood’ (13/41), and ibn Abu Ya’la reports it in ‘Tabaqaat al-Hanaabilaa’ (1/283) with a chain of narration linked back to Imaam Ash-Shafi’ee.]
Imaam Ash-Shafi’ee (Rahimahullah) said on another occasion:
“To Allah (Subhaanahu wa ta’aala) belong Names and Attributes that occur in His Book and His Prophet informed to the nation. It is not possible for anyone to refute (radd) them. So the one who contradicts this after the evidence has been established against him then he is a kafir (disbeliever), and as for before the establishment of the proof then he is excused due to ignorance, because the knowledge of that cannot be attained through the intellect. So we affirm these Attributes and we negate tashbeeh (likening Allah (Subhaanahu wa ta’aala) to creation) as Allah (Subhaanahu wa ta’aala) negated it by saying, ‘there is nothing like Him.'”
[Quoted in ‘Siyar A’laam an-Nubalaa’ (10/80)]

Imaam Ahmad Bin Hanbal (Rahimahullah)

Imaam Ahmad (Rahimahullah) was asked: “Allah is above the seventh heaven, above His Throne, distinct from his creation, and His Power and Knowledge are in every place?”
He (Rahimahullah) replied: “Yes, above the Throne and His Knowledge is in every place.”
[Quoted in Sharh Usool il-I`tiqaad]
Imaam Ahmad (Rahimahullah) also said: “Do not blindly follow me, nor blindly follow Malik nor Shafi’ee nor Awza’ee, nor Thawree but take from where they took”
[Quoted in Fulaani (p. 113) & Ibn al-Qayyim in I’laam (2/302)]
He (Rahimahullah) on a further occasion said: “Whoever rejects a statement of the Messenger of Allah (Sal-Allahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) is on the brink of destruction.”
[Quoted by Ibn al-Jawzee Page # 182]
Abu Haneefah (d. 150H) (rahimahullaah) said: “Adhere to the athar (narration) and the tareeqah (way) of the Salaf (Pious Predecessors) and beware of newly invented matters for all of it is innovation”
[Reported by As-Suyootee in Sawn al Mantaq wal-Kalaam p.32]
“And verily, this is My Straight Path, so follow it and do not follow other paths, for they would separate you away from His Path.”
[Sooratul-An’aam 6:153]
In addition, the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) has made it clear what is meant by these ‘other paths’ in an authentic hadeeth [1] which depicts the division of the Muslims and the straying of a large number of them from the straight path.

[1] An authentic (saheeh) hadeeth is one in which the following conditions have been met:
– There must be an unbroken chain of narrators leading back to the Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam).
– Each individual in the chain must be recognized as being a mature, trustworthy Muslim of sound mind and character.
– Each of the narrators must be recognized as being perfectly accurate in his transmission of hadeeths.
– The hadeeth must not contain something which contradicts something reported by someone who is more trustworthy.
– There must not be anything in the hadeeth which may cause suspicion about its authenticity.