Introduction To Fiqh
Notes From Mu’tassim Al-Hameedee’s Fiqh Class
Source Book: Al-Wajeez Fee Fiqh As-Sunnah Wal-Kitaab Al-Azeez of
Shaykh Abdul-Adheem Al-Khalafi (student Of Shaykh Al-Albaanee)
Fiqh – An Arabic word which originally means understanding and assimilating a subject or field of knowledge.
This Arabic word (fiqh) is mentioned in the Qur’aan and Sunnah.
“And it is not (proper) for the believers to go out to fight (Jihaad) all together. Of every troop of them, a party only should go forth. That they (who are left behind) may get instructions in (Islaamic) religion [liyatafaqqahu fid-deen], and that they may warn their people when they return to them, so that they may beware (of evil).” [Surah al-Tawbah (9):122]
From this verse we understand that the ruling of the availability of scholars among the people is fard kifayah (a collective obligation) which is the type of obligation where if a group of people from the community undertake this obligation then it lifts the burden off the shoulders of the rest of the community – but if no-one undertakes it then the whole community is sinful. Examples include Salaatul-Janaazah (the funeral prayer) and the science of Jarh (criticism) and ta’deel (declaring to be trustworthy) with regards to narrators.
Hadeeth narrated by Muawiyyah ibn Abee Sufyaan (Radiya ‘Llahu ‘anhu):
“If Allaah wants good for someone He gives him the [fiqh] understanding of the religion.” [Bukhaaree]
The reason why fiqh of the religion is good is because the person who has knowledge worships Allaah upon guidance – he knows the halaal and the haraam, so he does the halaal and stays away from the haraam – he knows where the sin is so he can avoid it and he knows where great reward lies.
And the one whom Allaah grants understanding is able to lead and guide the others to good – so he will earn reward for himself and by the people whom he guides.
“Whoever guides (another) to a good deed will get a reward similar to the one who performs it.” [Muslim]
The scholars divided the sciences of Islam with different fields to make them easier to understand i.e. aqeedah, tafseer, hadeeth etc
Fiqh as a science is knowledge of the rulings of:
• the acts of worship (ibadaah) – how to perform them – wudhu, zakat, prayer and everything related to them
• knowledge of dealings (Al-Mu’amalaat) – selling, buying, renting etc
Fiqh is a practical science
Prayer (Salaah) – before we pray we have to be in a state of purity (taharah) – this is why books of fiqh start with taharah or purification…